The Footnotes of History

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The French Religious Wars: Part III of III

The coalescing of the religious factions into distinct political blocks transformed a civil war into a European geopolitical struggle for influence in the French kingdom.

The French Religious Wars: Part II of III

Both sides of the conflict began arming for civil war. In an attempt to consolidate their gains, the Catholic armies besieged several Huguenot strongholds including La Rochelle.

The French Religious Wars: Part I of III

The French Wars of Religion were another prominent and extended chapter of the waves of religious wars that plagued Europe in the aftermath of the Protestant Reformation. The particular conflict in France was between the French Catholics and a group of Protestants known as the Huguenots. Their battles raged from 1562 to 1598 and claimed […]

How a Peasant Became Emperor of Rome

His rise through the ranks rested on noble largess he tapped into with his skill at arms and adept social maneuvering, and a level of ruthlessness and cunning that was shocking even at that time.

Of Human Rights and Nation-States

Outside of Central Europe, the Reformation would meet stiff resistance, as large established monarchies fought the rise of the first religious minority groups in their kingdoms. Eventually, these kingdom, such as France, would form coalitions to attempt to slow the spread of Protestantism.

Of Protestants and Princes

Despite the tenuousness of this “peace” the document signed at Augsburg would be one of the first examples of European states recognizing the right of self-determination of other states and the right of people to choose their own religious practice.

The Voyage of the Endurance

Led by Irish explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton, the expedition failed to accomplish its goal of an Antarctic land crossing, but became an epic feat of endurance in its own right.

Philosophy of History

. . . . we currently live in a stable, prosperous world, and we should understand the larger trends that produced this world, regardless of the motivations or intentions of those who helped produce it.

WWII and the World Order

On May 8th, 1945, Nazi Germany formally surrendered without conditions to Allied Forces in Berlin. The act of surrender was signed by Karl Donitz, Adolf Hitler’s successor following his suicide on April 30th. This ended what is universally regarded as the deadliest and most widespread conflict in human history, which lasted from 1939 to 1945, […]